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Home  >  Fundamental analysis  >  Money supply definition

Money supply definition

Money supply is one of the indispensable and dominating forces in growth of country's economy. It signifies the total amount of money in a distinct circulation, within the current economy of any specific country, available for the trade and purchase of services on the international forefronts.

It is one of the crucial instruments, playing a significant role in controlling the economy of any country. Expert economists believe that inflation would be caused in case the demand of money stabilizes. Thus, the inflation regulators need to target on focused measures related to monetary aggregates to target the diversifications of money supply.

Categories of Money supply

In United States, there are currently 4 dynamic categories MO, M1, M2 and M3 related to money supply. Further information on these categories is as follows:

1. MO- It signifies base money which includes coins, deposits of central banks and bills. It also includes the money reflecting the reserve requirements of reserve banks.

2. M1- It includes the currency present in public pockets and demand deposits.

3. M2- It includes M1 and time deposits and savings at licensed banks along with NCDs owned by public and issued by the license banks.

4. M3-It includes M2 and deposits held by restricted banks and companies, NCDs granted by the reserve banks and public.

Thus, M3 is the representations of all types of available money, including credits. But, these aggregates can be further dissolved into

- Dollars

- Components of foreign currency

Liabilities in money supply

1. In many economies, the most important liabilities are market funds and repos. But some economies, like Hong Kong, such instruments are considered lacking liquidity and thus, not considered a potential aspect of money supply.

2. Even the aggregation of money supply is done more on the basis of resident ships. But in other countries, this entity is not considered a must, as even non resident entities are not differentiated on this basis.

3. The placements of exchange and government funds. In most economies, the dollar money is essential for holding the deposit holdings of the government, while this custom is not customary in other economies.

Controllers of Monetary Supply

In different economies, there are different controllers for the monetary supply. For example, the money supply in US is controlled by the Federal Reserve. On the other hand, the European Central Bank carries the same position in different Euro areas. Apart from these, there are many more central banks, all over the world, having prominent impact of current global finances, such as People's Bank of China, Bank of England and Bank of Japan.

Trends followed in Money Supply

If a particular economy used gold for deals and business, the money supply can take place in two ways. The steps are basically

1. The growth, say 2-3% per year, depending directly on the increase in gold mining.

2. The elevation can also be recorded during the period of discoveries and gold rushes.

Effect of Money supply


The increase in money supply aids the debtors, but at the same time, it also causes inflation. For example, in the case of gold, the inflation would bring down the prices of gold.


At the same time, there are chances that the money supply would get mushroomed, when there is an increase in the price value of gold. Creditors and savers are aided in this process, but it results into deflation, where sale items are more economical when compared to gold. This situation literally continued in US from the 1792 to 1913, when US used credit money which was actually backed with gold for its utility as money.

Thereby, it's evident that money supply is has indomitable role played in the functioning and stability of the economy.

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